- (Yaitu) orang-orang yang mengikut Rasul, Nabi yang ummi (an-nabiyy al-ummiyy) yang (namanya) mereka dapati tertulis di dalam Taurat dan Injil yang ada di sisi mereka, yang menyuruh mereka mengerjakan yang ma'ruf dan melarang mereka dari mengerjakan yang mungkar dan menghalalkan bagi mereka segala yang baik dan mengharamkan bagi mereka segala yang buruk dan membuang dari mereka beban-beban dan belenggu-belenggu yang ada pada mereka. (QS. 7:157 )
- Katakanlah: "Hai manusia sesungguhnya aku adalah utusan Allah kepadamu semua, yaitu Allah Yang mempunyai kerajaan langit dan bumi; tidak ada Tuhan (yang berhak disembah) selain Dia, Yang menghidupkan dan mematikan, maka berimanlah kamu kepada Allah dan Rasul-Nya, Nabi yang ummi yang beriman kepada Allah dan kepada kalimat-kalimat-Nya (kitab-kitab-Nya) dan ikutilah dia, supaya kamu mendapat petunjuk." (QS. 7:158 )
- Dia-lah yang mengutus kepada kaum yang buta huruf seorang Rasul di antara mereka, yang membacakan ayat-ayat-Nya kepada mereka, mensucikan mereka dan mengajarkan mereka Kitab dan Hikmah (As Sunnah). Dan sesungguhnya mereka sebelumnya benar-benar dalam kesesatan yang nyata, (QS. 62:2 )
- Kemudian jika mereka mendebat kamu (tentang kebenaran Islam), maka katakanlah: "Aku menyerahkan diriku kepada Allah dan (demikian pula) orang-orang yang mengikutiku." Dan katakanlah kepada orang-orang yang telah diberi Al Kitab dan kepada orang-orang yang ummi: "Apakah kamu (mau) masuk Islam." Jika mereka masuk Islam, sesungguhnya mereka telah mendapat petunjuk, dan jika mereka berpaling, maka kewajiban kamu hanyalah menyampaikan (ayat-ayat Allah). Dan Allah Maha Melihat akan hamba-hamba-Nya. (QS. 3:20 )
- Sahih Bukhari Volume 3, Book 34, Number 335:
Narrated Ata bin Yasar:
I met Abdullah bin 'Amr bin Al-'As and asked him, "Tell me about the description of Allah's Apostle which is mentioned in Torah (i.e. Old Testament.") He replied, 'Yes. By Allah, he is described in Torah with some of the qualities attributed to him in the Quran as follows: "O Prophet ! We have sent you as a witness (for Allah's True religion) And a giver of glad tidings (to the faithful believers), And a warner (to the unbelievers) And guardian of the illiterates. You are My slave and My messenger (i.e. Apostle). I have named you "Al-Mutawakkil" (who depends upon Allah). You are neither discourteous, harsh Nor a noise-maker in the markets And you do not do evil to those Who do evil to you, but you deal With them with forgiveness and kindness. Allah will not let him (the Prophet) Die till he makes straight the crooked people by making them say: "None has the right to be worshipped but Allah," With which will be opened blind eyes And deaf ears and enveloped hearts."
Volume 6, Book 60, Number 362:
Narrated Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-As:
This Verse: 'Verily We have sent you (O Muhammad) as a witness, as a bringer of glad tidings and as a warner.' (48.8) Which is in the Qur'an, appears in the Surah thus: 'Verily We have sent you (O Muhammad) as a witness, as a bringer of glad tidings and as a warner, and as a protector for the illiterates (i.e., the Arabs.) You are my slave and My Apostle, and I have named you Al-Mutawakkil (one who depends upon Allah). You are neither hard-hearted nor of fierce character, nor one who shouts in the markets. You do not return evil for evil, but excuse and forgive. Allah will not take you unto Him till He guides through you a crocked (curved) nation on the right path by causing them to say: "None has the right to be worshipped but Allah." With such a statement He will cause to open blind eyes, deaf ears and hardened hearts.'
- Dari Ubay bin Kaab mengatakan : Rasulullah bertemu dengan Jibril, maka beliau berkata: "Wahai Jibril sesungguhnya saya diutus kepada kaum yang buta huruf. Di antara mereka ada orang tua dan sudah uzur, anak-anak, wanita hamba sahaya, serta orang-orang yang tidak pernah membaca buku sama sekali", Jibril berkata: "Wahai Muhammad sesungguhnya Al Qur'an diturunkan atas tujuh macam huruf” (HR. Ibnu Majah)
Pendapat lain tentang kata ummi ini misalnya berasal dari Kenneth Cragg yang mengajukan penafsiran bahwa kata nabi yang ummi mempunyai makna "The Unlettered Prophet". Saya tidak tahu apa maksud dari kata "the unlettered prophet" yang diajukan oleh Kenneth Cragg. Yang jelas pernyataan Kenneth Cragg tersebut tidak menunjukkan makna apa-apa setidaknya bagi saya.
Argumen selanjutnya yang muncul disini adalah dari beberapa kalangan yang berpendapat bahwa karena terdapat beberapa keterangan yang menunjukkan bahwa nabi SAW bermaksud menuliskan sesuatu, maka seolah menunjukkan bahwa nabi SAW bukanlah seorang yang buta huruf, baik mari kita kupas hal ini lebih lanjut:
- 'Read in the name of your Lord, who has created (all that exists) has created man from a clot. Read! And your Lord is the Most Generous." (96.1, 96.2, 96.3) Then Allah's Apostle returned with the Inspiration and with his heart beating severely (kutipan Sahih Bukhari Volume 1, Book 1, Number 3)
- Bacalah dengan (menyebut) nama Tuhanmu Yang menciptakan, Dia telah menciptakan manusia dari segumpal darah. Bacalah, dan Tuhanmulah Yang Maha Pemurah, Yang mengajar (manusia) dengan perantaran kalam (arabic: qalam)Proclaim! (or Read!) in the name of thy Lord and Cherisher Who created. Created man out of a (mere) clot of congealed blood: Proclaim! And thy Lord is Most Bountiful. He Who taught (the use of) the Pen (QS. 96:1-4 )
- Nun, demi kalam (pena) dan apa yang mereka tulis, berkat nikmat Tuhanmu kamu (Muhammad) sekali-kali bukan orang gila. (QS. 68:1-2 )
Answering-islam.org wrote like this (excerpt):
However, there are alleged (hanya diduga tapi tidak bisa memastikan) reports of a tradition that Muhammad did sign a treaty during his lifetime (ibn Hisham's biography, exact ref req'd). The following hadiths suggest (hanya diduga tapi tidak bisa memastikan) that Muhammad did know how to read.
Mari saya coba handel apa yang mereka duga tentang hal ini:
- Sahih Bukhari Volume 7, Book 62, Number 88:
The Prophet wrote the (marriage contract) with 'Aisha while she was six years old and consummated his marriage with her while she was nine years old and she remained with him for nine years (i.e. till his death).
- Volume 1, Book 3, Number 65:
Narrated Anas bin Malik:
Once the Prophet wrote a letter or had an idea of writing a letter. The Prophet was told that they (rulers) would not read letters unless they were sealed. So the Prophet got a silver ring made with "Muhammad Allah's Apostle" engraved on it. As if I were just observing its white glitter in the hand of the Prophet.
- Volume 5, Book 59, Number 716:
Narrated Ibn Abbas:
Thursday! And how great that Thursday was! The ailment of Allah's Apostle became worse (on Thursday) and he said, fetch me something so that I may write to you something after which you will never go astray." The people (present there) differed in this matter, and it was not right to differ before a prophet. Some said, "What is wrong with him ? (Do you think ) he is delirious (seriously ill)? Ask him ( to understand his state )." So they went to the Prophet and asked him again. The Prophet said, "Leave me, for my present state is better than what you call me for." Then he ordered them to do three things. He said, "Turn the pagans out of the 'Arabian Peninsula; respect and give gifts to the foreign delegations as you have seen me dealing with them." (Said bin Jubair, the sub-narrator said that Ibn Abbas kept quiet as rewards the third order, or he said, "I forgot it.") (See Hadith No. 116 Vol. 1)
- Volume 5, Book 59, Number 717:
Narrated Ubaidullah bin 'Abdullah:
Ibn Abbas said, "When Allah's Apostle was on his deathbed and there were some men in the house, he said, 'Come near, I will write for you something after which you will not go astray.' Some of them ( i.e. his companions) said, 'Allah's Apostle is seriously ill and you have the (Holy) Quran. Allah's Book is sufficient for us.' So the people in the house differed and started disputing. Some of them said, 'Give him writing material so that he may write for you something after which you will not go astray.' while the others said the other way round. So when their talk and differences increased, Allah's Apostle said, "Get up." Ibn Abbas used to say, "No doubt, it was very unfortunate (a great disaster) that Allah's Apostle was prevented from writing for them that writing because of their differences and noise."
- Volume 4, Book 53, Number 393:
Narrated Said bin Jubair:
that he heard Ibn 'Abbas saying, "Thursday! And you know not what Thursday is? After that Ibn 'Abbas wept till the stones on the ground were soaked with his tears. On that I asked Ibn 'Abbas, "What is (about) Thursday?" He said, "When the condition (i.e. health) of Allah's Apostle deteriorated, he said, 'Bring me a bone of scapula, so that I may write something for you after which you will never go astray.'The people differed in their opinions although it was improper to differ in front of a prophet, They said, 'What is wrong with him? Do you think he is delirious? Ask him (to understand). The Prophet replied, 'Leave me as I am in a better state than what you are asking me to do.' Then the Prophet ordered them to do three things saying, 'Turn out all the pagans from the Arabian Peninsula, show respect to all foreign delegates by giving them gifts as I used to do.' " The sub-narrator added, "The third order was something beneficial which either Ibn 'Abbas did not mention or he mentioned but I forgot.'
- Volume 1, Book 3, Number 114:
Narrated 'Ubaidullah bin 'Abdullah:
Ibn 'Abbas said, "When the ailment of the Prophet became worse, he said, 'Bring for me (writing) paper and I will write for you a statement after which you will not go astray.' But 'Umar said, 'The Prophet is seriously ill, and we have got Allah's Book with us and that is sufficient for us.' But the companions of the Prophet differed about this and there was a hue and cry. On that the Prophet said to them, 'Go away (and leave me alone). It is not right that you should quarrel in front of me." Ibn 'Abbas came out saying, "It was most unfortunate (a great disaster) that Allah's Apostle was prevented from writing that statement for them because of their disagreement and noise. (Note: It is apparent from this Hadith that Ibn 'Abbes had witnessed the event and came out saying this statement. The truth is not so, for Ibn 'Abbas used to say this statement on narrating the Hadith and he had not witnessed the event personally. See Fath Al-Bari Vol. 1, p.220 footnote.) (See Hadith No. 228, Vol. 4).
- Volume 5, Book 59, Number 553 (excerpt):
When the Prophet went out for the 'Umra in the month of Dhal-Qa'da, the people of Mecca did not allow him to enter Mecca till he agreed to conclude a peace treaty with them by virtue of which he would stay in Mecca for three days only (in the following year). When the agreement was being written, the Muslims wrote: "This is the peace treaty, which Muhammad, Apostle of Allah has concluded." The infidels said (to the Prophet), "We do not agree with you on this, for if we knew that you are Apostle of Allah we would not have prevented you for anything (i.e. entering Mecca, etc.), but you are Muhammad, the son of 'Abdullah." Then he said to 'Ali, "Erase (the name of) 'Apostle of Allah'." 'Ali said, "No, by Allah, I will never erase you (i.e. your name)." Then Allah's Apostle took the writing sheet...and he did not know a better writing..and he wrote or got it the following written! "This is the peace treaty which Muhammad, the son of 'Abdullah, has concluded: "Muhammad should not bring arms into Mecca except sheathed swords, and should not take with him any person of the people of Mecca even if such a person wanted to follow him, and if any of his companions wants to stay in Mecca, he should not forbid him."
- Sahih Bukhari Volume 3, Book 47, Number 761:
Ubaidullah bin 'Abdullah told me that 'Aisha had said, "When the Prophet became sick and his condition became serious, he requested his wives to allow him to be treated in my house, and they allowed him. He came out leaning on two men while his feet were dragging on the ground. He was walking between Al-'Abbas and another man." 'Ubaidullah said, "When I informed Ibn 'Abbas of what 'Aisha had said, he asked me whether I knew who was the second man whom 'Aisha had not named. I replied in the negative. He said, 'He was 'Ali bin Abi Talib."
Answering-islam.org wrote like this (excerpt):
Was Muhammad Illiterate?
For me that is not a very important question since Muhammad's illiteracy doesn't prove anything. The famous classical Greek poet Homer was blind and hence couldn't read or write either. But he composed one of the most famous pieces of literature.My response:
If Muhammad indeed put such a strong emphasis on learning, why would he for all of his life insist to not learn himself? First of all: Not learn to read and write, second to use reading to learn more? Is he disobedient to his own exhortations?
It doesn't matter if you or anyone must believe it or not. In this writing, i just give anyone some perspectives about this case, that it may be on contrary what you or anyone thought before. Why did Muhammad give some instructions on learning to people, while he didn't do? I think this is a good scenario from Allah so that anyone can't accuse that Muhammad wrote some materials on Divine Revelation (i.e Koran). On the other hand, what advantages that was gotten by Muhammad if he was not illiterate? Show us or muslim believer the Quran verses or hadiths that point out Muhammad had been dissappointed because he was illiterate or not?
Oke, akhirnya berikut saya tampilkan hipotesis-hipotesis yang mendukung asumsi saya bahwa nabi SAW adalah benar-benar seorang nabi yang ummi (buta huruf):
- Dalam konteks surah surah.7:157 digunakan kalimat an-nabiyy al-ummiyy (nabi yang ummi) dan bukan an-nabiyy li ummiyy (nabi kaum yang ummi).
- Sahih Bukhari Volume 3, Book 31, Number 137:
Narrated Ibn 'Umar:
The Prophet said, "We are an illiterate nation; we neither write, nor know accounts. The month is like this and this, i.e. sometimes of 29 days and sometimes of thirty days."
- Jibril a.s pernah membacakan kepadaku dengan satu bacaan. Aku minta supaya dia mengulangi bacaannya itu,
selalu juga aku minta supaya dia menambahnya dan permintaanku
itu dipenuhi hinggalah berakhir dengan tujuh bacaan (HR.
Dan mereka berkata: "Dongengan-dongengan orang-orang dahulu, dimintanya supaya dituliskan, maka dibacakanlah dongengan itu kepadanya setiap pagi dan petang." (And they (kaum pagan, pen. muslim) say: "Tales of the ancients which he has caused to be written: and they are dictated before him morning and evening.") (QS. 25:5 )
Jika dilihat ayat sebelumnya:
Dan orang-orang kafir berkata: "Al Quran ini tidak lain hanyalah kebohongan yang diada-adakan oleh Muhammad dan dia dibantu oleh kaum yang lain"; maka sesungguhnya mereka telah berbuat suatu kezaliman dan dusta yang besar. (But the Misbelievers say: "Naught is this but a lie which he has forged and others have helped him at it." In truth it is they who have put forward an iniquity and a falsehood) (QS. 25:4 )
Katakanlah: "Al Quran itu diturunkan oleh (Allah) yang mengetahui rahasia di langit dan di bumi. Sesungguhnya Dia adalah Maha Pengampun lagi Maha Penyayang." (Say: "The (Qur'an) was sent down by Him Who knows the Mystery (that is) in the heavens and the earth: verily He is Oft-Forgiving Most Merciful.") (QS. 25:6 )
Maka maksud sebenarnya dari ayat diatas (surah 25:4-5 ) adalah kaum pagan mengolok-olok nabi SAW bahwa beliau pernah membaca kisah-kisah sejarah terdahulu dan menuduh bahwa nabi SAW telah menulis dan mengajarkan pada orang-orang beriman suatu kisah bualan belaka, akan tetapi Allah SWT membantah dalam ayat 25:6 bahwa Al-Quran adalah benar-benar diturunkan dari Allah SWT dan bukan tulisan karangan atau kompilasi buatan nabi Muhammad SAW.
Ayat serupa tentang anggapan orang kafir:
Dan orang-orang kafir berkata: "Al Quran ini tidak lain hanyalah kebohongan yang diada-adakan oleh Muhammad dan dia dibantu oleh kaum yang lain"; maka sesungguhnya mereka telah berbuat suatu kezaliman dan dusta yang besar. (QS. 25:4 )
Sayang semua anggapan orang kafir telah dibantah oleh hujjah Allah SWT dalam ayat-ayat berikut:
- dan tiadalah yang diucapkannya itu (Al-Quran) menurut kemauan hawa nafsunya. Ucapannya itu tiada lain hanyalah wahyu yang diwahyukan (kepadanya). (QS. 53:3-4 )
- Atau (patutkah) mereka mengatakan "Muhammad membuat-buatnya." Katakanlah: "(Kalau benar yang kamu katakan itu), maka cobalah datangkan sebuah surat seumpamanya dan panggillah siapa-siapa yang dapat kamu panggil (untuk membuatnya) selain Allah, jika kamu orang yang benar." (QS. 10:38 )
- Dan demikianlah Kami wahyukan kepadamu wahyu (Al Quran) dengan perintah Kami. Sebelumnya kamu tidaklah mengetahui apakah Al Kitab dan tidak pula mengetahui apakah iman itu, tetapi Kami menjadikan Al Quran itu cahaya, yang Kami tunjuki dengan dia siapa yang kami kehendaki di antara hamba-hamba Kami. Dan sesungguhnya kamu benar- benar memberi petunjuk kepada jalan yang lurus. (QS. 42:52)
- Dan kamu (Muhammad, pen. muslim) tidak pernah membaca sebelumnya (Al Quran) sesuatu Kitabpun dan kamu tidak (pernah) menulis suatu Kitab dengan tangan kananmu; andaikata (kamu pernah membaca dan menulis), benar-benar ragulah orang yang mengingkari(mu). (QS. 29:48 )
"Dan di antara manusia ada orang-orang yang membantah tentang Allah tanpa ilmu pengetahuan, tanpa petunjuk dan tanpa kitab (wahyu) yang bercahaya". (QS. Al-Hajj:8 ) (this verse may be an explanation of isaiah 29:11) "Hai manusia, sesungguhnya telah datang kepadamu bukti kebenaran dari Tuhanmu. Dan telah Kami turunkan kepadamu cahaya yang terang benderang (Al Quran)." (QS. 4:174)
Sumber :Menjawab Fitnah Misionaris